You are looking at predictions for climate at a specific weather station under different emission scenarios (RCPs). RCPs represent different possible pathways following different hypothetical scenarios of demographic and technological developments. The public and private sector is forced to make decisions under the uncertainty of those developments. The first matter one might want to investigate is whether or not there are significant differences in climatic mean values under different emission scenarios for different time periods in the future, such as present-day to 2050 and 2050-2100.
You are provided with predictions for climate change at a specific weather station, and for different emission scenarios.
Apply an ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) to mean values of predicted temperatures for different emission scenarios to test if they are the same. Treat the RCPs as groups and investigate this for different time periods (e.g. 2000-2049 and 2050-2099) and different stations.
Optional: If the null hypothesis (mean 1 = mean 2 = … = mean n) is rejected, use t-tests to investigate which of the groups results in the rejection of the null hypothesis.